How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drainMoving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people,
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatableSo there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
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Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy
This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets.
The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1.
However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.
Demand for U.S. DollarsFirstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4.
This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate.
Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions.
Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.
The Rise of Crypto DollarsDue to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13.
An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.
Institutional DevelopmentsIn addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero.
J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications.
Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19.
These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.
Future OpportunitiesThere is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation. Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry.
There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish.
In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world.
 How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia
 The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist
 Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath
 Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers
 Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS
 Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider
 McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company
 Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates
 Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC
 Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters
 Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis
 The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg
 Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com
 Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes
 New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk
 Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank
 Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan
 Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News
 Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS
 Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
submitted by bitqtadvantage to u/bitqtadvantage [link] [comments]
In the later part of websites are the testimonials screaming out loud regarding their success.BitQT review can be quiet judgemental at this point as a result of neither these testimonials prove the legitimacy of the web site nor the live profit reviews account such
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Money FX Group scamLet’s begin this Money Forex Group review by stating the obvious, this scheme may be a total scam, you just have to look at the numbers.BitQT
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However there is additional to go through in this review.
Money FX Cluster testimonialThe Money Forex Cluster claims to be regulated by the subsequent institutions: FAC – Financial Conduct Authority of London, DFSA – Monetary Services Authority in Dubai, FSCA – Monetary Sector Conduct Authority of South Africa and FSA – the Monetary Services Authority of Seychelles.
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How it works
Let’s end this Cash Forex Group review by explaining the essential principle of this investment program. It's a Ponzi theme that does no real economic activity. It just collects money from individuals and may pay out some profits, but the most recent clients’ deposits can be used for that.
This will have an inevitable outcome, the system can sooner or later crumble. It's simply a matter of your time when there can be not enough deposits to hide withdrawals and also the inevitable end can
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members, don’t rely on people that play safe and stay poor. Do your own due diligence. (ps MOST sites that decision each business out as a scam…have their own links…..promoting guess what ? ….tip. SCAMS ! Beware.
The fund is operated in euros, but we’ve priced it in sterling for UK investors, so your return is subject to the sterling to euros exchange rate.Part of me thinks this isn't a problem, surely any fund that isn't solely invested in UK businesses is therefore having to deal with forex risk, let alone huge global funds, and that this is perfectly normal. On the flipside, being exposed to principally one other currency's fluctuation seems riskier as you can't spread that risk across many.
You're also exposed to currency fluctuations in regions the fund invests in, and any changes in exchange rates may affect the value of your investment.
And if we can do something that will bring that end quicker, we probably should do it, but we should do it understanding that it’s going to have an impact on millions and millions of people who are already having great difficulty finding enough to eat, getting themselves cured when they get sick, or finding clothes to put on their children before they go off to school. We don’t get to do this and pretend as though it has no impact there. We have to make the hard decision—the desired outcome justifies this fairly severe punishment.How does this gruesome candor get missed by reporters like Wyss, and go unreported in his article?
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|Family; Theatre||The Very Hungry Caterpillar and Other Eric Carle Favourites||Victoria Theatre||From $18||Various Showtimes|
|Social||Sparks Connection||Various||From $39.90||Various|
|Till 25 May||Workshop||Teochew Classes for Beginners||Sakae Building||$239.38||9am|
|Till 8 Jun||Musical||The Phantom of the Opera||Sands Theatre at Marina Bay Sands||From $75||Various Showtimes|
|Every Fri - Sun; Till 30 June||Exhibition; Family||22 Stories||Ayer Rajah Community Club||From $38||Fri - 5.30pm - 9.30pm; Sat & Sun - 10am-2pm & 5.30pm - 9.30pm|
|Till 27th Jul||Music||Singapore Rhapsodies at National Museum||National Museum of Singapore||Free||Various Timings|
|Till 22 Sep||Exhibition||Wonderland||ArtScience Museum||$18||10am - 7pm|
|01||Wednesday||Tour||Istana Open House||Istana Park||$2||8.30am - 6pm|
|Astronomy||Journey to Space||Istana Park||Free||9am|
|02||Thursday||Concert||Atul Khatri - Live in Singapore||SOTA Concert Hall||From $50||8pm|
|Karaoke||LIVE Rockstar Karaoke||River Valley Road||Free||6pm|
|Workshop||Millennialship Workshop||Clarke Quay||Free||7pm - 9.30pm|
|03||Friday||Concert||Troye Sivan: ‘The Bloom Tour’ Singapore||The Star Theatre||From 98||8pm|
|Concert||Bence Szepesi, Clarinet||Esplanade Recital Studio||$38||7.30pm|
|Concert||RHYTHMS, RITES AND RENEWALS||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $18||7.30pm|
|Festival||JustCo @ 20 Collyer Quay Open House||Collyer Quay||Free||11am|
|04||Saturday||Concert||Adam Gyorgy, Improvisations 2019||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $18||7.30pm|
|Concert||Jacintha Is Her Name Concert||Esplanade Recital Studio||$45||8pm|
|Concert||Songs At Twilight||Botanic Gardens||Free||6pm - 7pm|
|Concert||Very Venetian: Various Vivaldi Concerti||The Theatre Practice||Free||8pm|
|Concert||FIVERA-Pop Opera live in Singapore||Orchard||From $98||6pm|
|Cinco De May; 18+||Cinco De Mayo||River Valley||Free||8pm|
|Cinco De May; 18+||Cinco De Mayo With Singapore Pub Crawl||Raffles Place||$33||7pm|
|Cinco De May; 18+||Cinco de Mayo FeasTa||Marina Boulevard||$20||5pm|
|Mental Wellness||Positive Psychology Day 2019||Orchard Road||$22||11am|
|Books||James Suresh @ Books Kinokuniya SG||Kinokuniya||Free||2pm|
|Tech||AI + IoT Day by CloudxLab and IoTSG||Singapore University of Social Sciences||Free||9am|
|Tech||Web Development for Beginners||Henderson||Free||10am|
|Cooking; Workshop||Put Down Your Books, and Let's Cook||Blossom Youth Centre||$10/class||5pm|
|Sports||BEDOK SOCCER GROUP||Kaki Bukit Community Centre||Free||8.30am|
|Sports||CheekieFitness Partner Yoga||Marina Bay||From $10||7.45am|
|Mental Wellness||Advance Care Planning||Tampines||Free||11am|
|05||Sunday||Environment||Coastal Clean Up: Sungei Seletar||Sungei Seletar||Free||4.30pm|
|06||Monday||Music||Nostalgic Melodies of Yesteryear with JOE & THE SOUL EXPRESS||Esplanade Recital Studio||$15||10.30am & 3pm|
|Social||Unblue your Monday||Cross Street||$50||For 32 Years old and above only|
|Fitness; Health||1-Day Fitness Pass||The Herencia||$20||9am|
|06 - 12||Festival||MOTHER’S DAY WEEK||Punggol||Free||11am - 8pm|
|07||Tuesday||Drink; 18+||Vitasoy Barista Challenge||Tampines||$18||3pm|
|Sports||IBC Sports - Basketball||Methodist Girl's School||Free||7pm|
|08||Wednesday||Music||Alex Hutchings Tubeology Clinic||The Substation||$21||7.30pm|
|Marketing; Workshop||Social Media Marketing World||M38 @ Jalan Pemimpin||Free||7pm|
|Panel Discussion||CSA APAC Summit 2019||Eunos||Free||8.30am|
|09||Thursday||Drink; 18+||Almaza Beer Pairing Event||Church Street||$53||6.30pm|
|Sports||IBC Sports - Fishing||TBC||Free||5am|
|Sports||IBC Sports - Cycling||King's Road||Free||6am|
|09 - 12||Family; Puppet Show||ELMER THE PATCHWORK ELEPHANT SHOW||KC Arts Centre||From $42||Various Showtimes|
|10||Friday||Concert||ORIENTAL STRINGS||Victoria Concert Hall||From $23||7.30pm|
|Concert||MISSA SOLEMNIS · MASAAKI SUZUKI||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $25||7.30pm|
|Social; Food||Meet over Dinner||Jurong||$48||7pm|
|Keynote Session||What You Need to Know About Freelancing in Photography.||Selegie Road||Free||7pm|
|10 - 11||Dance||SIDES 2019||SOTA Studio Theatre||$30||Various Showtimes|
|10 - 18||Festival; Drink||Singapore Cocktail Festival 2019||Empress Lawns||From $35||!8+|
|10 - 19||Film Festival||European Union Film Festival||National Gallery Singapore||$12||Various Showtimes|
|11||Saturday||Concert||Jason Mraz: Good Vibes 2019||The Star Theatre||From $98||8pm|
|Concert||Jordan Chan Stop Angry Tour In Singapore 陈小春 Stop Angry 巡回演唱会新加坡站||Resorts World Convention Centre||From $88||8pm|
|Workshop; Art||Family Art Workshop||National Gallery Singaproe||From $20||1.30pm - 3pm|
|Music; Social||Music Bingoi!||Hollandse Club||$27||8.30pm - 12.30am|
|Music||Cruising Reggae Beats Party||Deutschlander||Free||10pm - 3am|
|Movie; Food||Afternoon Tea and Movie||Suntec City||$49||2.30pm|
|Social; Food||Bond Over Lunch||Buona Vista||$45||12.30pm|
|Social; Food||CLASSIC DATING WESTERN DINNER||Suntec City||$49||6.30pm; Over 30 years old only|
|Art; Workshop||AGAVE ACRYLIC PAINTING WORKSHOP||Gardens by the Bay||$30||3pm - 5pm|
|Family; Tech||Microthon 2019||IDEAS Hub||Free||9am|
|11 & 12||Food; Market||Sprout 2019||Suntec Singapore Convention||Free||10am - 8pm|
|Concert||Katya: Help Me I'm Dying - Live in Singapore||Shine Auditorium||From $88||8pm|
|Concert||SSO MOTHER'S DAY CONCERT||Singapore Botanic Gardens||Free||6pm|
|Drink; 18+||Saturday Beer Club||Orchard Centre||$55||3pm|
|Workshop||“Make-Your-Own” Blooming Tea||Suntec Convention Centre||$38||3.30pm|
|Entrepreneur||PAK Challenge 2019 Finals||SMU||Free||2.30pm|
|13||Monday||Concert||Ding Yi Special Season Pass 2019 鼎艺团乐季特惠票||Various||$62||Various Showtimes|
|13 & 15||Concert||Esplanade Presents Mosaic Music Series||Esplanade||From $ 35||8pm|
|14||Tuesday||Workshop||Moms in Business||Jalan Permimpin||Free||10.30am; Other dates available|
|15||Wednesday||Sports||IBC Sports - Golf||Various||Free||1pm|
|15 - 26||Theatre||Civilised||Various||Various||Rated R18; Various timings|
|16 May . 2 Jun||Art Festival||Singapore International Festival of Arts||Esplanade Theatre||Various||Various Showtimes|
|17||Friday||Concert||Guftagoo with Gulzar||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $50||8pm|
|Seminar||Limestone Hills in Peninsular Malaysia - to conserve or exploit||Botanic Gardens||Free||4pm - 5pm|
|Music||Visages||School of the Arts||Free||7pm|
|17 - 20||Concert Series||SSO Chamber Music Season||Victoria Concert Hall||$20||Various Showtimes|
|18||Saturday||Concert||KINGDOM HEARTS Orchestra –World of Tres–||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $109||8pm|
|Art; Nature||Nature Sketching in the Gardens||Botanic Gardens||Free||9am|
|Workshop||Turning IDEAS into Income||A Good Space||$22||10am|
|19||Sunday||Health||CVD & Hypertension/Hypotension||Bartley Residences||Free||3pm|
|20||Monday||Concert||IF WITH ALL YOUR HEARTS||Victoria Concert Hall||Free||12.30pm|
|21||Tuesday||Music; Tour||Victoria Concert Hall Open House||Victoria Concert Hall||Free||8.30am onwards|
|Panel Discussion; Tech||How to Rapidly Build a Successful Technology Team||Anson 79||Free||7pm|
|22||Wednesday||Concert||SYMPHONY OF VOICES 2019||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $15||7.30pm|
|23||Thursday||Workshop; Health||CERT First Aider Course||Woodlands||Free||9am|
|Business Seminar||Key Market Events and The Road to Forex||Raffles City||Free||7pm|
|23 & 24||Tech||Echelon Asia Summit 2019||Singapore Expo||From $10||9am|
|24||Friday||Drink; 18+||Organic Wines from French Vineyards||Nepal Park||$45||7pm - 9.30pm|
|Art; Fashion||Fashion meets Art||F1 Pit Building||Free||7.30pm|
|25||Saturday||Festival||AIA GLOW FESTIVAL||Sentosa||From $73||7pm - 11pm|
|Concert||NOOR: Sounds of Sufi with Harshdeep Kaur and Javed Ali||Esplanade Concert Hall||From $35||8.15pm|
|Concert||SLO Children's Choir Concert: How Far I'll Go||Victoria Concert Hall||From $20||7.30pm|
|25 & 26||Tech||Short Course- Data Analytics Using Python||Victoria Street||$600||9am - 6pm|
|Nature||Festival of Biodiversity 2019||HDB Hub||10.30am - 10.30pm|
|Mental Wellness||RevOILution Wellness Expo 2019||Marina Bay Sands Expo||Free||9am - 7pm|
|25 May - 4 Jun||Festival||Esplanade presents Flipside||Various||From $20||Various Showtimes|
|26||Sunday||Concert||SONG BRIDGES||Victoria Concert Hall||$20||4pm|
|27||Monday||Workshop||The Science of Healthy Hair||Orchard||Free||7.30pm|
|29||Wednesday||Sports||MBC Fun Walk & Race||Mapletree Business City||Free||4pm|
|30||Thursday||Concert||26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Sa Chen||Victoria Concert Hall||From $20||7.30pm|
|30 May - 2 Jun||Family||Peter and Blue Go Around The World Presented by Singapore Dance Theatre||Esplanade Theatre Studio||$30||11am & 2pm|
|31||Friday||Concert||26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Ronan O'Hora||Victoria Concert Hall||From $20||7.30pm|
|Festival||MOTHER'S DAY CELEBRATION||Killiney Exchange||$38||7pm|
|Family; Tech||Mod & Hack 3D Games||Bukit Timah Plaza||9.30am|
submitted by immediateedgereviews to u/immediateedgereviews [link] [comments]
Loads of individuals have been requesting that we do a thorough survey on the Immediate Edge App, and we've at last chosen to look at the stage and check whether it is truly what it says it is.
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From our thorough check of the site, there is sufficient evidence that Immediate Edge is genuine. The entirety of our tests shows that the exchanging bot is reliable and profoundly beneficial. On the off chance that you are searching for a respectable exchanging stage ensured to give you outstanding outcomes, at that point, look no more distant than the Immediate Edge App.
Is The Immediate Edge a Scam?
There are heaps of exchanging bots everywhere throughout the Internet, each encouraging clients an assortment of treats, claims, and certifications however at last end up being deceitful. It is straightforward why individuals would be worried about the authenticity of the Immediate Edge App. We checked the Immediate Edge App for ourselves, and we can affirm that it is a genuine exchanging stage, ensured to give you astounding outcomes. We put Immediate Edge App to a test and saved $250, and in only hours, we got a benefit of $100.
Rundown Of Our Findings
Noteworthy achievement rate, with over 81% win rate ensured
Simple to utilize, and easy to use
The product gives excellent outcomes as guaranteed
Simple store and withdrawal
Responsive client care
In light of the hazard engaged with exchanging, you are encouraged to begin little. As you become skilled at exchanging, you can build speculations.
What Is the Immediate Edge App?
Immediate Edge is a forex, and digital currency exchanging bot. Given the offer number of fake bots in the market, we chose to look at the Immediate Edge App, and it ends up being a genuine exchanging robot, that can be utilized to profit in only hours.
It is worked with a unique calculation that does all the truly difficult work for, and the main thing you have to do is kick back and receive the benefits. The exchanges are consequently put, and they have over 81% exactness which is more than what you get from master brokers. With the Immediate Edge App, new merchants get an opportunity to make a fair benefit in a difficult market. As an Auto exchanging bot, Immediate Edge App does the greater part of the work for you and completes the market examination expected to give you fabulous outcomes.
As we've prior expressed exchanging cryptographic forms of money, and forex is a high-chance occasion, and in that capacity, you should practice alert and start little, before growing your ventures.
You should realize that there are many phony connections out there. You can't be excessively cautious. On the off chance that you would like to attempt the Immediate Edge utilize just the safe connection by Clicking,>> HERE.
Who Founded Immediate Edge?
The minds behind the Immediate Edge reviews, App is Edwin James. The official site of the application gives us a concise understanding of who Edwin James is. Clearly, he made bunches of money from exchanging forex, and crypto. He constructed the Immediate Edge App as an approach to make exchanging simple for specialists and amateurs.
For what reason Should You Use the Immediate Edge App?
It's effortlessness and usability
Demo represent you to gain proficiency with the fundamental moves
Natural and easy to use stages
High achievement rate on its exchange
Astounding client care and administration
Bunches of exchanging instructional exercises
Bunches of withdrawal and store alternatives
Beginning – Registration
To begin with Immediate Edge, you have to make a record with them. This procedure is simple, and you should simply rounding out the structure with your subtleties, make a secret word, and you are a great idea to go.
In the event that you are stressed over losing your information, at that point uplifting news for you. The Immediate Edge site utilizes an SSL encryption, which implies every one of your information and individual data are verified.
After you are finished with the enlistment stage, the following stage is to finance your record. The least sum required is $250 (new dealers are encouraged to begin with this).
Merchants can utilize Immediate Edge to make manual or programmed exchanges. With an underlying venture of $250, you can receive several dollars consequently every day. Immediate Edge acknowledges stores from different sources, for example, Skrill, Wire Deposit, Credit and Debit cards, and Wire move. The greatest everyday store for credit or charge cards is $10,000.
The Immediate Edge gives a demo exchanging road to clients to get side by side of how exchanging functions. The demo exchanging alternative is an incredible path for you to figure out how to exchange on the Immediate Edge App. Use it previously or after you make your underlying store. It is a helpful apparatus that shows you exactly what exchanging is tied in with utilizing the Immediate Edge App.
When you become side by side with all the exchanging necessities utilizing the demo account, you can begin exchanging life and making every day returns. For whatever length of time that you have your store set up, the following thing you have to do is select auto exchange on your dashboard and watch the enchantment occur.
Your dashboard accompanies loads of highlights, for example, your pull back catch, store button, exchange history, and parts more.
Exchange rates for worldwide currency, convert currencies with data for US Dollar, Euro, British pound and Yen rates. Get zero commission money exchange and transfers. Exchange Rates UK brings you the latest currency news, forecasts, exchange rates comparison, historical data, currency conversion and live exchange rates using mid-market rates Date (GMT): Rate** Average: 1.594165: 31 Dec 1990: 1.784103: 31 Dec 1991: 1.767354: 31 Dec 1992: 1.766306: 31 Dec 1993: 1.501607: 31 Dec 1994: 1.531853: 31 Dec 1995 ... Free currency converter or travel reference card using daily OANDA Rate® data. Convert currencies using interbank, ATM, credit card, and kiosk cash rates. Currency Converter. Check today's rates. Currency Charts. Review historical trends for any currency pair up to the last 10 years. Rate Alerts. Set your target rate and we will alert you once met We publish daily spot rates against Sterling and other currencies on our database. Please note: the exchange rates are not official rates and are no more authoritative than that of any commercial bank operating in the London foreign exchange market. GBP daily rates. EUR daily rates. USD daily rates. Daily spot rates against GBP Exchange Rates View our very own live currency conversions Popular currencies are available in branch now and all currencies are commission free. Alternatively, order online to pick up in store through our Click & Collect service. Can’t make it into branch? You can now get currency orders over £650 delivered to your house for free! A small delivery fee applies to orders under £650. We do ... The July 2020 monthly exchange rates have been added. 26 May 2020. The June 2020 monthly exchange rates have been added. 27 April 2020. The May 2020 monthly exchange rates have been added. 23 ... About Forex Rate. At Forex Rate our aim is to provide as much free forex trading information as possible. Our pages are geared towards active currency daytraders and include our real-time foreign exchange rates, live Forex charts, live Forex quotes for most currency cross pairs,daily currency trading news and forex forecasts with our free RSS news feed. Interbank And Live Exchange Rates Foreign exchange rates are always on the move, so it’s wise to check out the charts before you make your payment. Interbank rates, also commonly referred to as market rates, are the official live conversion rates for a given currency pair. The interbank rate is the constantly fluctuating price at which banks ...
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